Review of Journals about Information System Development

Muhamad Riana Yudianto
Indonesia University of Education, Computer Science / C1 2010

1. Title : Investigating the Interactive Effect of Control in Information Systems Development Projects

Authors :
Ravi Narayanaswamy
University of South Carolina Aiken
Raymond Henry
Cleveland State University

Conclusion :
This study examined the impact of formal and informal controls on information systems project performance. The results both confirm prior findings and offer additional insights. Consistent with previous research, this study reaffirms that control plays an important role in ISD projects. In addition, this research provides much needed empirical evidence about the relationship between control and project performance. The results suggest that informal controls supplement the effect of formal controls on project performance. The findings also suggest that higher level of knowledge of ISD process help improve project performance. More interestingly, higher levels of knowledge of ISD helps leverage the effect of informal controls on project performance.
Overall, this study is an initial step in understanding how controls and knowledge of ISD process enhance systems development through both direct and interactive effects. Researchers can extend these findings in several different directions. First, it would be useful to examine the role of control in other types of ISD projects such as outsourced projects. Second, this study focused on traditional team environment, it would be valuable to study the dynamics of control in online and distributed team environments to see if these same relationships exist in other contexts. Finally, as senior executives expand the role of IS project managers, they expect them to be knowledgeable in broader domains. Thus it may be worthwhile to see how other types of knowledge may impact project performance.

2. Title : Effective Information Processing between Users and Developers during Information System Project Development

Authors :
Di Pan
Dept. of Industrial & Systems Engineering
National University of Singapore
10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260

Chee Meng Yap
Dept. of Industrial & Systems Engineering
National University of Singapore
10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260

Conclusion :
This paper studied information flows of seven projects in an information technology company in Singapore.Analysis of secondary data was employed as the research method.
The analysis of archival data revealed that different patterns of communication network were employed during IS project development. Three possible links exist in a communication net when users participate in project development. Different communication channels are used at different stages of project development process. At R&D stage, team meetings and emails play an important role in the communication between users and developers. However, routine project progress reports take their place at implementation stage after user requirements and system specification have been confirmed. After the confirmed user requirements and system specification are implemented, a project enters the testing stage. At that time, email becomes a major communication channel between users and developers again.
Since this study employed the analysis of archival data as the research methodology, the results of this study are affected by the weakness of archives. First, only three communication channels were studied: team meeting, email and formal report although other channels such as informal communication and telephone call have impact on the information processing between developers and users too. Second, we assumed that the archives include all records of communication via team meetings, email and formal report. Hence, the calculation on the frequency of communication between developers and users may be on the conservative side.

3. Title : Bringing Contextual Dimensions into The improvement of Information System Development Practices

Authors :
Ulf Seigerroth
Jönköping International Business School

Mikael Lind
University College of Borås

Conclusion :
An important lesson from having analysed four action research projects, SPI theories and SPI methods is the obvious need to go beyond a narrow focus and expand the scope. It is not enough to just focus on the categories that are utilised in existing SPI methods. The presented framework is an attempt to meet this and to structure and refine a number of categories that need to be focused and dealt with during improvement initiatives. Through its elaborated structure and categories the framework operationalise what is needed to deal with during improvement initiatives. Through its structure and categories parts of the organisational context are made less fuzzy by making some organisational aspects become explicit categories. Since the framework is more exhaustive than existing methods it also makes it easier to evaluate what to focus and how to deal with different aspects during planning and realisation of an improvement initiative. The improvement projects will always require you to take the actual situation into consideration and make adaptations.
The framework with its categories has a dualistic role during the improvement of system development practices. The categories in the framework are relevant for what we need to focus on and deal with on both the meta-development level and the development level (c.f. figure 3 below). This conclusion is quite natural since both practices deal with development, but have different objects (practices) in focus for the development effort. It is therefore important to be serious about both levels since the success will bdependent on that we can manage both levels. On the actual meta-development level, in addition to the
framework, we also need to deal with work procedures such as focusing on actual problems, ensuring participation, facilitating learning and preparing the practice for handling continuous improvements.

4. Title : The Study of Information System Development (ISD)Process from the Perspectives of Power Development Stage and Organizational Politics

Authors :
Ling-hsing Chang,
Department of MIS, National
Sun Yat-san University,

Tung-ching Lin,
Department of MIS, National
Sun Yat-san University,

Sheng, Wu,
Department of MIS, National
Sun Yat-san University,

Conclusion :
This paper is to study the information system development (ISD) by looking into fifty-six cases from the perspectives of power development stage and organizational politics. We intend to find out why the ISD will be successful or fail with the interaction theory of Markus [27]. In this research we sort out 192 examples of political games from 56 cases, which can be categorized into forty-one kinds of games. We have achieved the following contributions to MIS practice and research: (1) We find some of these games (including beating others when they are down, burning the bridge that brought one over, giving false alarm), because of their special features, appear only in one of the stages of ISD (planning, development, or implementation). (2) The organizational factors of unclear performance evaluation system, role ambiguity, distrust placed in individuals, less control of organization, self-serving senior managers, unemphatic on team-work, and less member identity will induce more political games. And the political games will thus bring negative impacts on the organizational culture, too. (3) Leading an easy life and providing lip service, game players employ power of type I alone. Players of ten kinds of game, including staying aloof, ritualism only use the power of type II and then they can hold stronger power for they can act on their own, with no need to contact with others or to be bound by others’ interests or actions, and express this through a cynical retreat from politics. The eleven kinds of games, including beating others when they are down, burning the bridge that brought one over may unconsciously exaggerate the danger of conflict and reprisal and express aggression that cause workers’ anxiety, because the players use the power of type III. Only players of five games, displaying charisma, forming coalitions, using outside experts, building a favorable image, and using a surrogate use the power of type IV. They help workers promote interests and resolve conflicts while develop some attachment to co-workers and the organization and achieve
cooperative political behavior. (4) As the MIS manager and professionals play as many as half of the games, we can prevent many political behaviors by managing and controlling the MIS professionals, which will surely save a lot of efforts. (5) The forty-one kinds of games will not only lead to results of four major adverse effects (deflection of goals dilemmas of administration, dissipation of energies, and diversion of resources), but there will be the success of project, which will bring a good effect to the project.
Baum [5] suggests four prerequisites which can promote organizational loyalty and identification: a good organizational culture, a new sense to contemporary work, improvement of working conditions and incentive systems, and an atmosphere for workers to identify with co-workers and the organization. Thus, we can ameliorate the organizational factors like “less member identity” etc. to improve the organizational performance in ISD.
Mechanic [29], Mayes [28], and Winter [40] believed that game players are mostly dominant people, and they are confident, aggressive, outgoing, having self-esteem and self-actualization motives. The ability to resolve differences and ambiguity in organization involves the understanding of the personality characteristics of the political behaviors. Both situational factors and personal factors interact with political processes. Hence via shedding light on the political orientation [12] and Machiavellism [8] we can understand the political processes of power use. Consequently, if we want to reduce political behavior, we have to understand the personality characteristics of employees as well as ameliorate the organizational factors. And this will be the direction of the follow-up of this research.

5. Title : Process Differentiation and Information Systems Development

Authors :
Thomas Chesney and Helen Fletcher
Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College

Conclusion :
This study has shown one possible way in which theuse case model could be used in strategic planning. Theapproach builds on the business process reengineeringwork by Jacobson et al [2] and agrees with Jacobson thatthe use case model can be created by business people andstill be used for information systems development. One important implication of this research is that it will be the end users of the information system (or at least a subset ofthem) who will create the use case model. Mattingly & Rao [23] advise systems developers against allowing users to create the use case model. They claim that as users are not trained in writing, and are probably notinterested in writing, use cases, they should not. The underlying assumption behind this research is that users (in this context, the use case modelling team, who will be end users in a small business) can and should create the use case model. Jacobson [24] states that to do use case modelling properly, it is important to fully understand the problem domain. Who should understand the problem domain better than the organisation’s management? Jaaksi [4] agrees with this, realising it is important to get users more involved in the process of writing and commenting on use cases.
However it is not expected that systems developers will have to work solely from the use case model created by the strategists. Clearly, additional analysis will need to be conducted. However, the model can be used as the basis for that analysis. Developers can discuss the model with end users and perform walk-throughs together as use cases are an excellent communication tool.
To sum up the advantages of using the UCM in strategy planning, problem domain experts are involved in capturing systems requirements, the resulting information system will be geared towards the improved business processes and the use case model will provide a basis for communication between developers and business people.

6. Title : Knowledge Transfer in Virtual Information Systems Development Teams: an Empirical Examination of Key Enablers

Authors :
Saonee Sarker
Suprateek Sarker
Darren Nicholson
Kshiti Joshi
Washington State University

Conclusion :
The topic of knowledge transfer, especially between individuals within organizations, has received considerable attention among researchers. However, not much research has been undertaken to examine knowledge transfer within groups, especially those that span across time and space (i.e. virtual teams). Focusing on the characteristics of the source, this study identifies important potential enablers of knowledge transfer in systems development virtual teams.
Future research could focus on examining the role of the characteristics of the recipients (such as absorptive capacity), and the nature of the knowledge on knowledge transfer. Research could also be undertaken to compare the findings of this study with factors enabling knowledge transfer in face-to-face ISD teams. This will enable researchers to isolate the enablers/inhibitors that are unique to knowledge transfer in virtual teams.
A variety of knowledge taxonomies, based on knowledge levels (data, information, knowledge, wisdom), knowledge types (descriptive, procedural, reasoning), and knowledge modes (explicit and tacit) have been suggested in the literature [18, 29, 36]. However, for the purposes of this study, instead of using a more general type of knowledge, we have adopted a taxonomy (technical vs. managerial/ behavioral) that is relevant to our context (i.e. ISD).
Finally, in this study we use a variance model in examining the enablers of knowledge transfer in virtual teams. We believe that the next step should be to take a more process approach, and uncover how the process of knowledge transfer unfolds in virtual environments, especially as the virtual teams evolve through different stages of development.
In conclusion, we reiterate that effective knowledge transfer is critical to the formation of a shared frame of reference in organizations, particularly in those separated by time and space. Yet, there has been limited empirical work undertaken on this topic. We hope that our study, in identifying key characteristics and behaviors associated with knowledge transferers across time and space, provides a useful starting point for further research in this area.

7. Title : Minitrack: E-Commerce Systems Development Methodologies

Authors :
Matti Rossi1, Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen1, Keng Siau2, Sandeep Purao3
1Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration
P.O. Box 1210, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland.,
2Department of Management, 209 College of Business Administration
University of Nebraska — Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0491, USA.
3School of Information Sciences and Technology
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
State College, PA 16802,USA.

Conclusion :
The papers for the mini-track were selected after a through reviewing process. Together, these papers present a snapshot of emerging issues relevant to the field. The first paper “An Upfront Requirements Modelling and Design Practice for E-commerce Projects” by Ghada Alaa, and Guy Fitzgerald examines the nature of e-commerce and its implications for the development for e-commerce applications, highlighting the fact that e-commerce is different and requires a high degree of business innovation and responsiveness. In their paper “Engineering a Method For Wide Audience Requirements Elicitation and Integrating It To Software Development” Tuure Tuunanen and Matti Rossi introduce a new method that responds to the complexities of development process of consumer oriented information systems. The third paper , “Current and Emerging Requirements for Digital Rights Management Systems Through Examination of Business Networks” by Eetu Luoma and Hannu Vahtera looks at the issue of controlling and managing digital rights over intellectual property by taking on a novel viewpoint of networked operations.

8. Title : Working Under Grey Skies: Information Systems Development and Organizational Identity in a Post-merger Context

Authors :
Dragos Vieru
TELUQ University Montreal

Suzanne Rivard
HEC Montreal

Conclusion :
We developed a multilevel process model that suggests micro- and macro-levels of analysis can be simultaneously studied. The data analysis revealed that while the planned post-merger integration approach was a transformation, the outcomes of the three projects suggest a mix of preservation and transformation for Cases 1 and 2 and a mix of symbiosis and transformation for Case 3.
Our study makes a number of contributions. In terms of practical implications, this research emphasizes that while it is paramount to develop and implement Iss with functionalities that enabled post-merger practices, management would be in a better position to make a decision regarding the integration approach if it understood why similar business process were perfomed differently in the previously independent organizations. In term of contributions to IS research, first, by using the concept of organizational identity we were able to see that the final functionality of the three developed IS reflected individuals understanding of the others norms, values and organizational symbols. Second, we developed a dual-motor process model that provides an explanation of how organizational-level decisional events, such as the choice of level of PMI, impact on how the functionality of new Iss will be designed and developed at a group level, and how those organizational-level events, in run, are shaped group-level events and effects.

9. Title : Interpersonal Conflict And Its Management In Information System Development

Authors :
Henri Barki
École des Hautes Études Commerciales
Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2A7
Phone: (514) 340-6482; e-mail:

Jon Hartwick
Faculty of Management
McGill University
Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1G5
Phone: (514) 398-4039; e-mail:

Conclusion :
As our review of the literature and empirical results have shown, interpersonal conflict is a neglected yet important topic in ISD. Our results indicate interpersonal conflict is reflected by three key dimensions: disagreement, interference, and negative emotion. Any conceptualization and empirical assessment of the construct needs to include all three. The results also show that, contrary to what some researchers and practitioners suggest, individuals perceive interpersonal conflict negatively. Also, interpersonal conflict impacts ISD outcomes negatively. Moreover, while conflict management had some positive effects on ISD outcomes, it did not substantially mitigate the negative effects of interpersonal conflict. In other words, the impact of interpersonal conflict was perceived to be negative, regardless of how it was managed or resolved. Consequently, ISD researchers and practitioners need to direct greater effort towards assessing the antecedents and prevention of interpersonal conflict.

10. Title : Method engineering: engineering of information systems development methods and tools

Author :
Sjaak Brinkkemper”
Department of Computer Science, University of Twente, P. 0. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, Ihe Netherlands

Conclusion :
We have introduced method engineering as a research framework for information systems development methods and tools. The basic terms for method engineering: method, technique, tool and methodology, have been defined to aid the future scientific debate. The research in the area of method engineering has been exemplified with a discussion of the first results of situational methods: a configuration procedure for situational methods, a CAME tool, and a method engineering language.
Essential to the future development of the field is to keep our eyes open for the needs of the development practice. The research agenda should be set with the needs from industry in mind. Further detailing of research priorities should guide the academic and industrial researchers involved in method engineering projects. We are convinced that method engineering is a promising research field.

Tematik Al-Quran Dengan Tema Islam dan Pendidikan di Indonesia

Muhamad Riana Yudianto (1002302)
Ilmu Komputer C1 2010, FPMIPA, UPI
Seminar Pendidikan Agama Islam
Dr. Munawar Rahmat, M.Pd.



Pendidikan adalah usaha sadar dan terencana untuk mewujudkan suasana belajar dan proses pembelajaran agar peserta didik secara aktif mengembangkan potensi dirinya untuk memiliki kekuatan spiritual keagamaan, pengendalian diri, kepribadian, kecerdasan, akhlak mulia, serta keterampilan yang diperlukan dirinya dan masyarakat.[1] Sayangnya, tidak semua lembaga pendidikan, khususnya di Indonesia, mencakup keseluruhan aspek yang dibutuhkan untuk membentuk hakikat manusia secara utuh. Kita melihat di kehidupan nyata banyak terjadi penyimpangan-penyimpangan akhlak, baik itu oleh seseorang yang berpendidikan tinggi, atau punya jabatan, atau punya pangkat, sampai kepada seseorang yang mungkin hanya mengenyam pendidikan sampai tingkat Sekolah Dasar. Sedih rasanya jika setiap manusia tidak mengenal hakikat dirinya sendiri. Oleh karena itu, saya akan mencoba membahas pentingnya pendidikan yang seharusnya menurut pandangan islam yang bersumberkan kepada Al-Quran. Hal ini banyak berkaitan dengan akhlak yang mulia.

Q.s. Al-Ahzab : 21

Sesungguhnya telah ada pada (diri) Rasulullah itu suri teladan yang baik bagimu (yaitu) bagi orang yang mengharap (rahmat) Allah dan (kedatangan) hari kiamat dan dia banyak menyebut Allah.

Terdapat hal yang sangat penting yang terkandung di dalam ayat ini. Negara kita, yang mayoritas memeluk agama islam dan memiliki sumber daya alam yang sangat kaya seharusnya menjadi negara yang damai, tenteram, sejahtera, makmur, adil, jujur, bermoral, dan berakhlak mulia. Tetapi kita terheran-heran melihat berita bahwa Indonesia termasuk salah satu negara terkorup di dunia, korupsi sudah mewabah dan menjadi budaya dari golongan bawah sampai golongan atas, banyak terjadi tawuran antar pelajar, perang antar suku, pemuda-pemudi banyak terlibat kasus narkoba dan seks bebas, sehingga banyak kasus hamil diluar nikah dan naiknya angka pengguguran kandungan, banyak orang bunuh diri karena tidak tahan dengan tekanan hidup yang diterima, dan masih banyak lagi hal lainnya yang tidak sesuai dengan ajaran islam. Kita melihat disini bahwa kita kekurangan sosok seorang pemimpin atau panutan, sehingga kita terbutakan dengan mana yang benar dan mana yang salah, kita lupa bahwa Allah selalu melihat tindak-tanduk kita setiap saat, kita lupa bahwa sebuah bangsa itu dikatakan baik atau buruk tergantung pribadi masing-masing masyarakatnya. Di ayat ini, secara tersirat, kita sebagai umat islam yang beriman dianjurkan untuk meneladani manusia terbaik yang pernah ada, Nabi Muhammad SAW, karena itulah pilihan yang mutlak jika kita ingin menjadi manusia yang menjunjung tinggi kebenaran. Kebenaran itu hanya milik Allah SWT yang diturunkan sifat-Nya kepada manusia melalui hati nurani. Jadi, jika kita ingin sukses dunia dan akhirat, jadikan Nabi Muhammad sebagai role model kita dalam menjalani kehidupan ini. Ada 4 hal yang paling menonjol dan menjadi pilar utama Muhammad dalam menjalani hidupnya :

  1. Siddiq (Benar dalam bertindak)
  2. Amanah (Dapat dipercaya)
  3. Tabligh (Menyampaikan apa yang benar dan apa yang salah)
  4. Fathonah (Bijaksana)

Keempat hal ini tidak cukup diajarkan di sekolah yang berfokus pada pendidikan otak, untuk lulus pun kita harus memenuhi kriteria nilai tertentu dalam tugas dan ujian, bukan berbicara tentang kebaikan apa yang sudah kita lakukan dalam rangka implementasi ilmu yang sudah diajarkan. Ini menjadi tugas buat kita semua dalam transformasi nilai-nilai pendidikan yang seharusnya agar kita menjadi bangsa yang kokoh dan tidak mudah goyah. Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamin. Semoga bermanfaat untuk kita semua. Mohon maaf apabila ada kekurangan. Mohon kritik dan sarannya.

Referensi :





Conclusion of Journals about Business Intelligence

Muhamad Riana Yudianto
Indonesia University of Education, Computer Science / C1 2010
1. Title : Business Intelligence

Authors :
Solomon Negash
Computer Science and Information Systems Department Kennesaw State University


The term Business Intelligence may turn out to be a fad. However, the underlying concepts, using information technology to deliver actionable information for decision makers, are essential for managing today’s global businesses. BI uses both structured and semi-structured data. The former is much easier to search but the latter contains the information needed for analysis and decision making.

2. Title : Business Intelligence Explorer: A Knowledge Map Framework for Discovering Business Intelligence on the Web

Author                 :
Wingyan Chung, Hsinchun Chen, Jay F. Nunamaker Jr.
Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Business and Public
Administration, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721
{wchung, hchen, nunamaker}


In this paper, we introduced Business Intelligence Explorer (BIE), a tool that implements the steps in a knowledge map framework for discovering business intelligence on the Web. The tool applied techniques in content collection, text-mining, and document visualization to address the problem of information overload on the Web. Two browsing methods were developed: Web community and knowledge map. Results from our preliminary user study are encouraging. Users liked the clustering and visualization capabilities of Web community while they found knowledge map’s intuitive meaning of point placement helpful in reducing information overload, which was found in result list display and Kartoo map display, a commercial search engine with graphical result display.

3. Title : Real Time Business Intelligence for the Adaptive Enterprise 

Authors :
B Azvine, Z Cui, D D Nauck and B Majeed

Real-time business intelligence will be available to everyone in the enterprise, and will be embedded in many business systems. Although many technologies are available to implement this vision, many challenges remain to make this vision a reality. We have outlined key challenges like automated analytics, semantics based information fusion and process automation, and presented some examples which support the feasibility of our vision. We believe that technologies like intelligent data analysis, soft computing and ontologies will play a major role in the development of RTBI.

4. Title : Business Intelligence Systems Design and Implementation Strategies

Authors :
G R Gangadharan
IMIT Class of 2004, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy

Sundaravalli N Swami
Assistant Professor, Ramarao Adik Institute of Technology, Navi Mumbai, India sundar1469@ yahoo. com


Many industries are using BI applications to reach beyond the enterprise and share insights off the platform with vendors and customers IS]. Understanding what BI is, why one would apply it and the corresponding benefits are important in implementing BI across the enterprise. Implementing BI with in the enterprise is not the destination, but a joumey towards an ideal enterprise.

5. Title : Ontology-based Information Extraction for Business Intelligence

Author                 :
Horacio Saggion and Adam Funk and Diana Maynard and Kalina Bontcheva
Department of Computer Science, University of Sheeld
Regent Court, 211 Portobello Street,
Sheeld, S1 4DP
United Kingdom

Conclusion      :

Business Intelligence requires business analysts to gather, merge, and analyse considerable amounts of information in multiple formats and from heterogeneous sources. Information extraction technology is a key enabler to identify in text key pieces of information to be used in BI tools. Clustering techniques are powerful tools to merge information across different sources.

We have described how available and robust information extraction technology is being adapted to create an Ontology-based information extraction system in the context of the MUSING project. The system produces ontological annotations which are transformed into tuples for ontology population. The system already extracts and merges information from various sources and for specific applications in financial risk management and internationalisation. Applications are being created which use the valuable information in the knowledge based toperform reasoning or provide valuable information to customers. Performance measured through quantitative evaluation in both extraction and cross-source coreference look promising.

Conclusion of Journals about IT and Business

Muhamad Riana Yudianto
Computer Science / C1 2010

1. Title     : Analysing the Relationship Between IT Governance and Business/IT Alignment Maturity

Authors    :
Steven De Haes
University of Antwerp Management School

Wim Van Grembergen
University of Antwerp


          As a general conclusion, this research revealed that IT governance is indeed high on the agenda and that organisations with a mature mix of structures, processes and relational mechanisms indeed achieved a higher degree of business / IT alignment maturity compared to other organisations. However, as indicated earlier in this paper, this research adheres to the process theory, implying a limited definition of prediction. Therefore, our conclusion here is limited to the statement that business/IT alignment maturity is likely to be higher when organisation are applying a mix of mature IT governance practices and likely to be lower in organisations with a more poor mix of IT governance practices.


2. Title     : Business & IT Alignment in Theory and Practice

Author      :
Drs. A.J. Gilbert Silvius MBA
Utrecht University of Professional Education Utrecht, The Netherlands


Aligning IT to business needs is still an important challenge for many organizations. The input provided by the participants of the focus groups made clear that aligning IT to business needs in practice is not a mechanical ‘by-the-book’ process. The real world provides a more complex and fuzzy situation in which BIA is not as straightforward as implied by the methodologies. This BIA requires conditions like ‘being on speaking terms with each other’ and ‘partnership between business and IT’. These fuzzy conditions are indications for an organization’s maturity of the relationship between business and IT.


3. Title     : IT Business Alignment and IT Usage in Operational Processes:  A Retail Banking Case

Authors     :
Heinz-Theo Wagner
E-Finance Lab
J. W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany

Daniel Beimborn
E-Finance Lab
J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany

Jochen Franke
E-Finance Lab
J. W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany

Tim Weitzel
E-Finance Lab
J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany


          Methodologically, we used an embedded single case study of a retail process in branches of a retail bank with focus on alignment and usage. This case study setting allowed us to do research in a homoge- neous environment regarding firm and IT strategy, hiring policy, training concepts, formal processes, and information systems employed.


4. Title     : Proposing a Theoretical Model for IT Governance and IT Business Alignment

Authors   :
Daniel Beimborn, Frank Schlosser, Tim Weitzel
University of Bamberg, Germany
{daniel.beimborn | frank.schlosser | tim.weitzel}


Theoretically integrating key findings from IT value, IT business alignment and IT governance re- search, we show the tantamount role of executive sup- port and operational alignment from a governance perspective. Executive support directly and significant- ly drives not only strategy and operational alignment but also IT governance tools, and indirectly business process performance.


5. Title     : Business Environment Scanner for Senior Managers:
Towards Active Executive Support with Intelligent Agents

Author      :
Shuhua Liu
Turku Center for Computer Science and Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research
Åbo Akademi University, Lemminkäisenkatu 14 A, FIN-20520 Turku, FINLAND

Conclusion      :

          Continuous monitoring of the business environment by agents can help managers in maximizing limited resources (time and effort) and enhances productivity. An agent system that relentlessly scans the environment and intelligently incorporates varying sources of information can flexibly deal with changing information needs and actively inform its user the most up-to-date information that strategic decisions can be based on. When scanning is delegated to software agents, it is at the same time possible to incorporate managerial perspectives into the process. So managers do not necessarily lose their peculiar views as a result of using software agents, as with human agents. An agent’s scanning activities can be guided, trained and controlled according to the user’s preference perhaps easier than with human agents. When its goal is clear the agent system takes initiatives, interacts with data, applications and services on the Web to accomplish its task. It does not need explicit instructions step by step by the user and does not complain. The agent system is meant for its end-user’s personalized use and are easily customized. It is an adaptive approach for support and it plays an active role in support. Internally the scanning agent is a knowledgebased construct though it works in a different mode from traditional KBS.